COME AND PLAY SERVICE DESIGNER WITH US! - CO-CREATING A PLAYABLE CUSTOMER JOURNEY INSTALLATION
Editor: Elies Dekoninck, Andrew Wodehouse, Chris Snider, Georgi Georgiev, Gaetano Cascini
Author: Pirita Johanna Ihamäki, Katriina Irina Heljakka
Section: POSTER 1: SHORT PRESENTATIONS
""User-centered design or user-focused design are terms which describe processes that attempt to involve potential customers or users within a design process. The intention of such processes is to create solutions that better serve the needs, feelings and wants of users, therefore increasing user experience, product desirability, and ultimately to increase the value of the solution. This paper discusses a simply executed creativity workshop which has been refined over a number of years to deliver a heightened awareness of empathy with user needs and characteristics. The workshop challenges participants to deliver solutions to problems that are unexpected and seemingly ridiculous in nature. The creativity workshop has been implemented in a variety of timeframes with designers, engineers and mixed non-technical groups. During more recent years it has been recognized that this exercise was in fact delivering learning outcomes beyond those of ‘creativity’ which were originally intended, and includes those of building the value of empathy and understanding of users in the design process."" ""Creativity studies have uncovered how novel combinations of prior technologies can influence the future value of resulting inventions. But such theoretical understandings have been seldom applied to analysing inventions and guiding real-world innovation practices. To fill this gap, we analysed a novel sleep-monitoring system that is commercialized by a start-up company in Singapore. Our case study demonstrates the novelty assessment method using the central-extreme novelty matrix, and reveals the challenges and opportunities that originate from the novel combinations of the underlying technologies but only appear at the later stages of product development and manufacturing in the innovation process. The findings provide implications for innovators to manage design novelty of the original invention, from the holistic perspective of the innovation process."" ""The relationship between creative processes and problem structuring (PS - selfinterpretation of a problem while solving it) is often overlooked in research. We explored how PS affects the outcome’s creativity in the context of two problem types: open or closed presentation, and novelty or usefulness focus. 48 students and architects completed a preliminary design task. Analyses show how outcomes’ novelty and usefulness are positively affected by PS under certain conditions, and how worktime indirectly affects creativity through PS. The study offers new insights on the worktime-creativity positive relationship; it opens new directions towards a comprehensive understanding of PS and creativity; and it suggests how both PS and creativity may be promoted through proper time allocation."" ""In this paper, an analytical examination of two types of classical design space formalisms is presented. Compositional aspects in each type of design space are examined in terms of the units and the rules given to synthesize descriptions of designs. A uniform treatment of the technical concepts underlying both types is developed based on shapes and on computations defined in terms of shapes. Issues concerning the use of both types of design space formalisms for synthesis tasks in creative domains are discussed. Alternative directions are outlined that reframe classical conceptualizations of design spaces in ways that emphasize the open-ended, improvisational nature of creative work in design."" ""In today’s increasingly complex world, designers and other practitioners are required to tackle problems creatively while adhering to an ever-growing list of constraints. Existing research on the constraint-creativity relationship reveals mixed findings, with some studies suggesting that constraints can hinder creativity, and others showing that constraints can enhance creativity. Most studies that look at this relationship examine the impact of the type or severity of the constraint on creativity leaving us with many questions about the less studied factors that can moderate this relationship. In our study 62 industrial engineering students completed a design-ideation task that measured the impact of constraints on creativity. Our data shows that self-imposed constraints are beneficial to creativity relative to external constraints, providing empirical evidence of the benefits of self-imposed constraints."" ""Design of new and re-design of existing infrastructure systems will require creative ways of thinking in order to meet increasingly high demand for services. Both the theory and practice of design thinking helps to exploit opposing ideas for creativity, and also provides an approach to balance stakeholder needs, technical feasibility, and resource constraints. This study compares the intent and function of five current design strategies for infrastructure with the theory and practice of design thinking. The evidence suggests the function and purpose of the later phases of design thinking, prototyping and testing, are missing from current design strategies for infrastructure. This is a critical oversight in design because designers gain much needed information about the performance of the system amid user behaviour. Those who design infrastructure need to explore new ways to incorporate feedback mechanisms gained from prototyping and testing. The use of physical prototypes for infrastructure may not be feasible due to scale and complexity. Future research should explore the use of prototyping and testing, in particular, how virtual prototypes could substitute the experience of real world installments and how this influences design cognition among designers and stakeholders."" ""Creativity in game design is not as widely studied as it is in general design discipline. While it may be argued that game design is simply a special case of design, in reality, it is peculiar in many ways and hence needs special attention. We aim to understand the game ideation process through the lens of creativity model. We first develop a theoretical creativity model based on the concepts in the creativity literature. We then study the ideation process of game design students and understand how it fits with the proposed theoretical model. We find that the game ideation discovered through field study broadly follows the theoretical model. Our larger research goal to develop a refined ideation model and build an ideation tool for game designers. This paper discusses the first step towards it.